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~ Nyanko! Welcome to Pop Culture References! Be aware there are UNMARKED SPOILERS for certain mangas and animes ahead!

The Battle Cats contains a massive amount of pop culture references. This article aims to compile them all.


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  • Axoloty's Japanese name, Rūpārūpā, is derived from ūpārūpā, an informal synonym for "axolotl" which originated from a 1985 Nissin U.F.O commercial. This is why Axoloty's Japanese description states that it's "often sighted near a UFO".
  • Wicked Face's design is most likely a reference to Big Ben and Little Ben, the demon-costumed bacteria seen in some of TOTO's toilet commercials, as his Japanese description raises the possibility that he, too, is a form of bacterium.

Anime and Manga

  • Delinquent Cat is a direct reference to Jotaro Kujo from JoJo's Bizarre Adventure. His attack animation is identical to how Jotaro uses his Stand, Star Platinum in the anime/manga.
    • After the events of JoJo's Bizarre Adventure: Stardust Crusaders, Jotaro Kujo can stop time for 2 seconds, just like how Delinquent Cat can freeze Floating Enemies for 2 seconds.
    • During the fight with DIO, Jotaro Kujo could move during stopped time, which may be referenced by Angry Delinquent Cat's ability of Immune to Freeze.
  • Cyborg Cat's name, appearance and description are a reference to the manga series Gunnm (also known as Battle Angel Alita), created by Yukito Kishiro.
  • Phantom Thief Cat's name is a possible reference to the Magic Kaito manga series.
  • Berserker Cat looks like Guts from the Japanese manga Berserk in Berserker Mode.
  • Grudge Cat may be based off of Hikaru Gosunkugi from Ranma ½, with both wearing candles on their heads, having a voodoo doll, and using a hammer as a weapon.
  • Major Space Cat might refer to Char Aznable, as he helds lieutenant rank in the original MS Gundam anime. The red color and horn on the helmet also are his distinctive characteristics.
  • Cat-o-tron's Japanese name (Chogouchin Nyajinga) is a reference to Mazinger (pronounced "Majinga") Z, an iconic super robot anime where said robot is said to be made of Chogokin (Super Alloy) Z.
    • Cat-o-tron's appearance, however, is based on Iron Man No.28 (Tetsujin 28-gou, also known as Gigantor in the US), the first anime featuring a giant robot. The cat with the remote controller references Shotaro Kaneda, the kid who commanded the robot by the exact same means.
  • Clockwork Cat is a reference to Kankurō from the Naruto anime and manga series, a ninja who specializes in the use of puppets.
  • Magica Cat's alien contract may be a direct reference to the Magical Girls in Madoka Magica.
  • Magica Cat's hair and outfit are grayscale, cat-sized versions of the titular character's from Creamy Mami, the Magic Angel.
  • Thaumaturge Cat's staff resembles Kukuri's from Magical Circle Guru Guru.
  • Iron Claw X could be a reference to Raoh from Fist of the North Star.
  • Super Galaxy Cosmo references the anime series Saint Seiya. The armor greatly resembles the combination between Cygnus & Pegasus Cloth. The crane circlet and shield-like armlet are highly resembling Cygnus Cloth's trademark while the breastplate, shoulder, hip and leg armor more closely resemble Pegasus Cloth.
    • "Cosmo" is another reference to the energy in the Saint Seiya franchise.
  • Assassinlan Pasalan's name, description and design (most notably the bandages on his arms and bullet holes on his chest) are references to Kenshiro, the protagonist of Fist of the North Star.
  • Lufalan Pasalan is based on the straw-hatted pirate Monkey D. Luffy from the manga One Piece, which is fitting, for Lufalan Pasalan's long arms are reminiscent of Luffy's own Devil Fruit that allows his limbs to stretch like rubber.
  • Psychocat's Normal Form looks similar to 009/Joe Shimamura from Cyborg 009. The shawl and the uniform also resemble the cyborg group's uniform.
  • Oni Hayabusa's blade may be a reference to Rin Okumura's Kurikara from the Blue Exorcist manga and anime series, as shown by the blue flames.
  • Golfer Cat's design (particularly his head) is based on the protagonist of the golf manga Ashita Tenki ni Taare.
  • Welterweight Cat is likely based off of Yabuki Joe from the manga Ashita no Joe.
  • Twinstars may be a reference to the anime Ommyoji Two Stars (Jap. Sousei no Onmyouji), where the 50th series is called "Two Stars. Twins", as well as the second name of the anime "Twin Star Exorcists".
  • Lone Cat and Kitten are a reference to the main characters of Lone Wolf and Cub, a manga series where Ogami Ittō tries to get revenge against the Yagyū clan. Ogami Ittō also walks around with his son, and because of that they are known as the "Lone Wolf and Cub".
  • Headmistress Jeanne is referring to Joan of Arc in Ancient France, specifically the one portrayed in the Fate series thanks to her Evolved Form bearing a personality and color scheme similar to that of Jeanne Alter (a gruff, angsty, and sometimes evil version of Jeanne clad in black and red.)
  • Legelan Pasalan resembles Yoshikage Kira's Stand, Killer Queen from Jojo's Bizarre Adventure, Part 4: Diamond is Unbreakable.
  • Myrcia is most likely a direct reference to Claire Harvey from the anime Handoreddo.
  • Kinrangers RoboForce is a parody of the Super Sentai Series, which revolves around five costumed action heroes who fight villains with signature weapons, martial arts, and giant mechs.
  • Slime Cat's description may be a reference to the light novel and anime series That Time I Got Reincarnated As A Slime. ("When I woke up, I found myself turned into a slime.")
  • Hell Warden Emma is a direct reference to Hell Warden Higuma.
  • Shadow Boxer K's 'cheesy' line "You are already dead" is a direct reference to Fist of the North Star, where the main protagonist, Kenshiro says this to most of the villains he fought in the anime.
  • When opening her head to attack, Cli-One is similar to the aliens in the sci-fi horror manga Parasyte.
  • Dolphina's Japanese name, Ika Musume (イルカ娘), is a reference to the anime and manga Squid Girl. The Japanese spelling of the titular character's name (イカ娘) is almost identical to Dolphina's, except Dolphina's adds the syllable ル ru, changing the meaning to Dolphin Girl.
  • Dead Donny Dash may be a reference to Kitarō, the titular protagonist of GeGeGe no Kitarō. They both come from the grave, their hairstyles are almost identical, and Donny's first name in Japanese is Shitarō, swapping ki (鬼) with shi (死), meaning "death".
    • Dead Donny Dash's Japanese name may additionally be a reference to Dash! Yonkuro, as ダッシュ死太郎 is not that far off from ダッシュ!四駆郎.
  • During the third hit of his attack, Final Boss Giga-God's pose is almost the same as Ultimate Kars' in the second JoJo's Bizarre Adventure opening, "BLOODY STREAM".
  • Mr. Puffington's Japanese name and description reference the character Masuo Fuguta from Sazae-san.
  • Aku Doge is a reference to the titular character of the anime and manga Devilman, not only in his design but also in his Japanese name, Devilwan.
  • The enemy bases of Thanxbye, Darararah, Mertoz, Urura, Aguham, Somolon and Ababwa are all based on units and the Pegasus White Base from Mobile Suit Gundam.
  • Darararah may be a reference to the light novel series and anime Durarara!!.
  • Titan's appearance on the map and its enemy base are likely referencing Attack on Titan.
  • Attack on Titanium is a pun on Attack on Titan.
  • Each unit from the removed Cat Combo Shonen Manga represented a different shonen manga: Captain Cat was One Piece, Angry Delinquent Cat was JoJo's Bizarre Adventure, and Ninja Frog Cat was Naruto.

Doraemon

  • Time Traveller Cat's vehicle looks similar to the time machine that Doraemon has hidden inside the drawer of Nobita's desk, and its Japanese description can be referring to the fact that the two characters often accidentally slip into Shizuka's bathroom when manipulating the gadgets.
  • Future Cat's getup resembles Sewashi Nobi's jumpsuit.
  • Since both are cat-like constructs, Doguemon's name may be a reference to Doraemon himself.
  • Mr. Angel is a direct reference to the Guidance Angel, both in appearance and in personality.

Dragon Ball

  • Evangelist Cat, Filibuster Cat X and Filibuster Obstructa all look like Frieza at True Form. Evangelist Cat's attack also references Frieza's Death Ball.
  • Kamukura is a reference to the Dragon Shenron. Its strength against Red Enemies could be a reference to the Red Ribbon Army. Even the description of its Evolved Form references the "7 [dragon] balls" collected, causing it to shift to its True Form; a blatant reference to how the 7 Dragon Balls work.
    • In Evolved and True Form, a One-Star Orb and 2 Three-Star Orbs confirm that these orbs belong to the 7 Dragon Balls.
  • Neo Psychocat's description is a reference to the battle between Gotenks and Super Buu in the Hyperbolic Time Chamber, in the saga Dragon Ball Z. His appearance is basically a Super Saiyan.
  • Hermit Cat is a reference to Korin. Just like Korin, he lives on top of a Giant Tower, carries a walking stick, and is deceptively agile and strong.
  • Master Uril wears the exact same robes as Dende. The background used in Floor 50 of the Heavenly Tower also resembles the outside of Kami's Lookout, which technically becomes Dende's Lookout after he takes over.
  • Lucky Gacha Cat's description may be referencing Frieza's transformation dialogue from Dragon Ball Z. ("You fool! This isn't even my luckiest form!")
  • On the in-game map, Sighter's Star resembles the head of Vegeta.
    • This theory is further supported by the Treasure being a Forehead, a prominent feature of Vegeta's.
    • This may be why the enemy base is made out of vegetables.
    • "Sighter" could be another term for a Scouter.
  • Kaiou makes several references:
    • Its name is derived from Kaio-ken, a fighting technique that was invented by King Kai.
    • King Kai is known to make many Dad Jokes - the Treasure of Kaiou.
    • The enemy base is a snake (referencing Snake Way) wrapped around the One, Three, and Five star Dragon Balls.
    • The stage on the map resembles King Kai's gravity-heavy planet.
  • Shack of Spirit, Cave of Spirit and Labyrinth of Spirit all reference the Room of Spirit and Time. The reference is more blatant in the Japanese Version, where all three also have the suffix "and Time" added to their names.

Neon Genesis Evangelion

  • Piccolan Pasalan's design references the Angel Sachiel. Similarities include the red core in the center of their bodies, the flaps on the sides of their heads, the "lances" inside their arms, and the rib-like bones clutching their core, in addition to having similar body shapes. Its description states that it may be an extraterrestrial of unfathomable power, further referencing the Angels from Neon Genesis Evangelion.
    • This may be why it requires one more Yellow (Angel) Catfruit to evolve when compared to the other types of Catfruit it needs.
  • Cli-One's appearance and attack animation may be a reference to the Angels. The description tends to be a reference of the Moon in the Rebuild of Evangelion's movies, where a part of the plot takes place.
  • Cruel Angel Clionel's English name is a reference to the main theme of Neon Genesis Evangelion, A Cruel Angel's Thesis; while the first sentence of her description states the main plot of the anime (Human Instrumentality, also known as Third Impact).
    • Her Japanese description is another reference, specifically incorporating the wordplay from Episode 24: 「最後のシ者」 The Beginning and the End. The specific borrowed term can be read in three different ways, either as envoy, casualty or on the water's edge. Presumably she is all three at once.
    • A Cat Screaming Love name comes from The Beast that Shouted Love at the Heart of the World, a story by Harlan Ellison, and—more relevantly—the title of the final episode of Neon Genesis Evangelion (from which Cruel Angel Clionel gets its inspiration).
  • The crosses that appear during Death Angel Z-Onel's attack may be referencing the Angels' death effect.

Art

Comic Books

  • Catman's name and each of his forms, especially his Evolved Form, reference DC's superhero Batman.
  • The Black Cat is very likely a reference to Catwoman from the Batman series, as she and Catman are in the same set.
  • Mightycat is an obvious parody of Superman.
  • Saying I.M. Phace's name will sound like "I am Face", which might be a spoof of Groot's catchphrase "I am Groot" from the Guardians of the Galaxy series.
  • Death Angel Z-Onel's face resembles The Punisher's logo.
  • Crimson Star is the name of a fan-made hero from Singapore, made by Singapore, for Singapore to be exact.
    • The name Crimson Star may also be a reference to DC Comics' Superman, whose home planet had a red sun. This is supported by the enemy base, which looks like Superman standing on top of crystals, like in Richard Donner's 1978 Superman film.
  • The Rolling Dead references the post-apocalyptic comic book and television series The Walking Dead; "Rolling" refers to Zyclone's method of movement.
  • The removed Cat Combo with the first three Dark Heroes' Normal Forms, Just Us League, was a reference to DC Comics' Justice League, while the Combo with their Evolved Forms, Revengers, was a reference to Marvel's Avengers.

Food

  • Value Meal Cat may be based on McDonald's Happy Meals.
  • Pigeon de Sable is a reference to Kamakura's famous dove-shaped butter cookies, Hato Sables (Hato being Japanese for "pigeon/dove").
  • As a yellow koala who fights with a chocolate-covered snack, Martin is quite possibly a reference to the Koala's March brand of cookies, also known as Koala Yummies.
  • Martin's "weapon" resembles a Pepero.
  • Chickful A's name is a reference to long-time American fast food restaurant Chick-fil-A.
  • Gory Junior's Japanese name, Garigori-kun, is a reference to Garigari-kun, a Japanese ice confectionery brand.
  • Kappy Jr.'s Japanese name, Kawawappa Jr., may be a reference to Burger King's Whopper Jr., as -wappa Jr. and Whopper Jr. would have near-identical kana spellings.
  • Tidy Kitchen's Japanese name, Kichinto Kitchin (きちんとキッチン, "Tidy Kitchen"), may be a reference to the chicken brand Kichinto Chikin (きちんとチキン, "Neat Chicken").
  • Langue de Chat is French for "cat tongue", a type of cookie or biscuit named for its cat-tongue-like shape. In Japan, however, a "langue de chat" is a square sandwich cookie with a white chocolate filling.

Literature

  • Greater Balrog Cat is a reference to the fiery demon in The Lord of the Rings. Gandalf the Grey fought and defeated the Balrog in the abyss, which lead to his ascension as Gandalf the White.
  • Evil Cat's unusual Japanese name, I Am a Demon, references the title of Natsume Sōseki's famous novel I Am a Cat. The personal pronoun employed in the title is deemed pompous and almost exclusively used in 'cat speech' in the modern era.
  • Kuu, Kai and Coppermine are modeled after Journey to the West characters Sun Wukong/Monkey King, Zhu Bajie/Cho Hakkai and Sha Wujing, respectively.
    • Kuu's Bo/Staff and cloud-riding ability are common traits in Wukong's portrayal.
    • Coppermine's weapon is modeled after monk's spade, a trait commonly found in Wujing's portrayal. The plate above her head is also commonly found in Japanese portrayals of Wujing, which are commonly treated as a kappa (which also has a plate on its head). Incidentally, the romaji for Coppermine's Japanese name (カッパーマイン) is Kappāmain.
    • Before version 4.7, using all three in Row 1 would activate a Cat Combo named Journey to the West.
  • Castaway Cat or Seafarer Cat might be referencing Santiago from The Old Man and the Sea
  • Mad Doctor Klay is likely inspired by Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, as referenced to by the occult anatomy and soul transplant mentions in Mad Doctor Klay's description.
  • Pied Piper Cat's appearence and description are a clear reference to the story of the Pied Piper of Hamelin.
  • The major works credited to J.K Bun Bun seem to be parodies of Pride and Prejudice (1813), and Les Misérables (1862) respectively.
  • The text on Aku Cyclone's ring is upside-down katakana which translates as: "Devil: Unbeaten by the rain, unbeaten by the wind, bested by neither seal nor summer heat." This is a parody of Kenji Miyazawa's famous poem Ame ni mo Makezu.
  • The Great Escaper is a reference to the 1950 nonfiction book about escaping a prison camp, The Great Escape, which was adapted into a film in 1963.
  • Moby Dick shares the same name with the whale from the novel Moby-Dick, and Cap'n Ahab is named after the captain who seeks to get revenge on him.
  • Trainspotting is a reference to the novel of the same name, which received a film adaptation in 1996
  • The removed Cat Combo Nekoluganomicon was a reference to the Necronomicon, a fictional grimoire mentioned in some of H.P. Lovecraft's works.
  • The I Am Legend Meow Medals reference the 1954 post-apocalypse novel of the same name.

Magazines

  • Kid Tappa's Japanese name, Manabu-kun, is a reference to the work-and-hobby-focused magazine Keiko to Manabu, as proven by the line, "His girlfriend Keiko said he should start looking for a real job," in his Japanese description.
    • His joining the elite Alien shock division could be an allusion to Keiko to Manabu's publisher, Recruit.

Memes

  • The pose Bronze Cat and Quizmaster Cat strike after attacking is the Colombia Pose, a Japanese Internet meme which originated from the quiz show Panel Quiz Attack 25.
    • The line, "although the questions are pretty easy," in Quizmaster Cat's description can also be applied to Quiz Master 25. In fact, it became a meme because of how many easy questions the original Colombia Poser got wrong despite ultimately winning.
  • Masked Yulala's description references Cool Story, Bro. ("Joined the Cat Army, saying "The Law of my clan is to serve the strongest of warriors!" Cool story, bro.")
  • Doge may be a reference to the meme of the same name.
  • Teacher Bear seems to be referencing Pedobear, who has been frequently misinterpreted as a symbol of pedophilia, despite being purposed to notify people against such acts; the description mentions "He LOVES children" and "not related to a certain other bear".
  • Brollow's description references. Do You Even Lift?. ("DO YOU EVEN LIFT???")
  • W is a Japanese Internet slang describing an expression of amusement or laughter. It is often used in multiple times in a row.
  • Death Angel Z-Onel's description references Don't Talk to Me or My Son Ever Again. ("Don't come near me or my sons ever again.")

Movies

  • Executioner is a reference to the iconic killer Jason Voorhees from Friday the 13th.
  • Kung Fu Cat's outfit looks similar to the iconic yellow jumpsuit that Bruce Lee wears in the movie Game of Death.
  • Sadako Cat is a reference to Sadako, AKA Ringu, the TV-haunting ghost from the horror movies series The Ring.
  • Fishman Cat's appearance (minus the trident) could be a reference to the classic film, Creature from the Black Lagoon.
  • Dread Pirate Catley is probably a reference to The Princess Bride', since the name "Dread Pirate Catley" is similar to both the Dread Pirate Roberts and his real name (Westley) from the novel/movie.
  • Dread Pirate Catley's Japanese name, Nyack Sparrow (ニャック・スパロウ) is a reference to the Pirates of the Caribbean character Jack Sparrow.
  • Charley is a reference to Chucky from the Child's Play slasher series, a notorious serial killer whose spirit inhabits a doll.
  • Dioramos' design greatly resembles one of Godzilla's greatest enemies: Destoroyah. Also, they both have the ability to shoot energy beams out of their mouth.
  • Thaumaturge Cat's headdress, Condemned Peng and Wicked Face resembles that of Maleficent from Disney, which is also supported by her description.
  • Castaway Cat is a reference to the movie Cast Away starring Tom Hanks.
  • Catyphoon's whole appearance, with the umbrella and spinning top, is a reference to Mary Poppins.
  • Heavyweight Cat is likely based off of Apollo Creed from the Rocky series.
  • Rover Cat is a Cat version of Wall-E.
  • Croco's description references the movie Crocodile Dundee. ("He was saved by Dundee.")
  • H. Nah is likely a reference to the hyena Ed from The Lion King, who has a similar personality and, like, H. Nah, four hairs on his head. However, where H. Nah always says, "no," Ed is obedient and unquestioning.
  • Gory Groom and Gorilliam may be referencing King Kong.
  • I.M. Phace's second head and Project A's design are based on a Xenomorph from the Alien franchise.
  • I.M. Phace's and Nimoy Bore's pointy ears are a reference to Spock and the Vulcans from Star Trek.
  • Galactic Overseer Nyandam's glowing finger heavily references E.T.'s, from E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial, own glowing finger.
  • Scissoroo's name and description the Tim Burton movie, Edward Scissorhands.
  • Cyberhorn's description is a reference to the eponymous main antagonist of the acclaimed sci-fi movie The Terminator. It even mentions his low movement speed.
  • Mistress Celeboodle's hair could be a reference to the famous Tim Burton movie, Mars Attacks!.
  • Daboo of the Dead bears more than a passing resemblance to Oogie Boogie, the main antagonist of the Tim Burton movie The Nightmare Before Christmas.
  • Corporal Weyland's name is a reference to the Weyland Corporation which appears in the Alien franchise.
  • Bang-Bang is a direct reference to the movie Sailor Suit and Machine Gun.
  • Croconator's name is a portmanteau of "crocodile" and "terminator", as in The Terminator.
  • Gorigori is a possible reference to Planet of the Apes. Proof of this is the Japanese name of the stage, Planet of Gorillas (ゴリラの惑星).
  • Skelling's name may be derived from Jack Skellington, the protagonist of The Nightmare Before Christmas.
  • The event poster for Queen's Coronation references the Fast & Furious series of movies.
  • I'll Be Bug could be a reference to the Arnold Schwarzenegger quote "I'll be back", which was first used in The Terminator.
  • Cat School Musical is a reference to High School Musical.
  • 100 Cat Dates's name is based on 2004 rom-com 50 First Dates.
  • Meowin' in the Rain is a reference to Singin' in the Rain.
  • Indepenence Day is a reference to the UFO-heavy film of the same name.
  • The removed Cat Combo Bustin' Ghosts was an obvious reference to Ghostbusters.
  • The Meow Medal Who You Gonna Call? is a reference to the Ghostbusters' theme song.
  • The Time Machine bears some resemblance to the DeLorean Time Machine from Back to the Future, as it has wheels that turn sideways like in the 2nd movie and rocket thrusters in the back.
  • The April Fools' Day 2018 article had an advertisement for the movie "Your Cat's Name"; a parody of Your Name.

Star Wars

  • Heavy Assault C.A.T.'s machine greatly resembles AT-ST.
  • Dark Lazer is akin to Darth Vader in name, attire and choice of weapon. Her "fluorescent bulb" changing from red to blue shows that she now joins the good side of The Force.
    • However, in the actual movie it was the other way around. Darth Vader started off as Anakin Skywalker and was on the light side but joined the Dark Side and became Darth Vader.
  • The Death Moon closely resembles the Death Star.
  • Rover Cat Mk II is a Cat version of BB-8.
  • Skelling's enemy base and Treasure reference Darth Vader and The Force respectively.
  • General GreGory's name resembles that of General Grievous.

Studio Ghibli

  • The Flying Cat is a reference to Laputa from Castle in the Sky.
  • Ururun Wolf is a reference to San from Spirited Away.
  • Jizo's Moving Castle is based on Howl's Moving Castle, which is greatly shown on the legs.
  • Shishilan Pasalan is a reference to the Night Walker from Princess Mononoke, also known as a Shishigami, explaining the first part of Shishilan's name. In addition to looking similar, both are described as gods of life and death.
  • Gloomy Neneko is dressed like Kiki from Kiki's Delivery Service.
  • The cat holding an umbrella in Catyphoon is based off of Totoro from My Neighbor Totoro.
  • Galactic Overseer Nyandam's minions may be a reference to the spirits in the movie Mononoke Hime.
  • Elder Sloth's face is almost identical to that of the River Spirit, also from Spirited Away.
  • Jibbly Studio has two units who are direct references to Studio Ghibli films (The Flying Cat to Castle in the Sky and Mythical Titan Cat to Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind) and Witch Cat representing Kiki's Delivery Service. "Jibbly" and "Ghibli" are also homophones.

Music

  • Cats in the Cradle's name could be a reference to the Harry Chapin song "Cat's in the Cradle".
  • Kalisa resembles Hatsune Miku, a popular VOCALOID to this day.
  • The Rock Revengers are a reference to the rock band KIϟϟ; while Deathkory is specifically based off of Paul Stanley.
  • The line "a squid-winged angel..." (翼のイカれたエンジェル) in Cala Maria's Japanese description is a reference to the song "Tsubasa no Oreta Angel" (翼の折れたエンジェル, "Broken-Winged Angel") by Ayumi Nakamura.
  • The Thrillerz are a reference to the zombies from the Michael Jackson's Thriller music video.
  • Bore Jr.'s stolen motorbike and "the night of 35" (35の夜) in his Japanese description reference the song "15 no Yoru" (15の夜) by Yutaka Ozaki; one of the lyrics translates to "I race off on a stolen motorcycle..."
  • Corona's enemy base and Pop Idol Treasure reference Hatsune Miku, of whom images were placed onboard the space probe Akatsuki, which was launched from Japan towards Venus - a planet with coronae.
  • Chubby B. Goode is a pun on the song "Johnny B. Goode" by Chuck Berry.
  • Windless Island is a reference to the second album by Happy End, Kazemachi Roman (風街ろまん), which translates to "Wind City Romance". The sub-chapter's Japanese name, Kazemachi Airando (風待ちアイランド, "Windwait Island") even has Kazemachi (風街) in it, but spelled with 待ち, meaning "wait", instead of 街, meaning "boulevard".
  • Houses of the Holy shares the same name with a song and album by legendary rock group Led Zeppelin.
  • BGM is "Macarena" refers to "Macarena", a Spanish dance song by Los del Río.
  • Explosion in the Sky is a possible reference to the instrumental post-rock band Explosions in the Sky.
  • Watch Me Whip is a reference to the song "Watch Me (Whip/Nae Nae)" by Silentó.
  • Like a Record, Baby is a reference to one of English pop band Dead or Alive's most popular songs, "You Spin Me Round (Like a Record)".
  • Prior to version 10.7, The Cat God's menu and some of the harder Event Stages would play "O Fortuna"; this was likely changed due to copyright.

Mythology, Folklore and Religion

  • Jiangshi (殭屍) stands for zombie in Chinese. The main feature of Chinese zombies (Jiangshi) is jumping, and having a paper with script on its head. It is said in Chinese legends that when a seal (paper script) is placed onto a zombie's head, the zombie will fall under whoever taped it onto its head. The zombie will jump around under the user's control until the seal is removed and the zombie goes back to being mindless.
  • Nyalladin is a reference to Aladdin. However, while the description says the Cat "calls on his turbaned friend to fire", it is the Genie that attacks.
  • Madam King's appearance may be a reference to the fairy tale The Emperor's New Clothes, where the emperor is tricked to be wearing a suit of "clothes" that are invisible to those who are unfit for their positions, stupid, or incompetent – while in reality, he is wearing no clothes at all.
  • Anubis is the jackal-headed Ancient Egyptian god of the dead, the afterlife and mummification.
  • Ganesha is the elephant-headed Hindu god of beginnings.
  • Lilith Cat is named after a female demon of Jewish folklore, while Succubus Cat refers to a type of demon that seduces men to drain their life force.
  • D'artanyan closely resembles Puss in Boots.
  • Doge's Angel variant shares a name with the mythical archangel Gabriel.
  • Angelic Sleipnir's attack value of 2,247 is an "angel number" encouraging you to build your confidence and self-esteem; the first three digits of his 363,000 health are an especially lucky "angel number" meaning you are on the right path and should continue to pursue your ambitions; and his unusual range of 372 indicates that you should work together with those around you and obey the rules that have been laid beside you.
  • High Priest Mamon's name is one letter away from Mammon, which has often been used as a name for a patron demon of greed.
  • Chupacabra Love derives its name from the Chupacabra - a legendary creature in the folklore of parts of the Americas, with its first purported sightings reported in Puerto Rico.
  • Frog Prince is a reference to The Frog Prince; or, Iron Henry.
  • According to legend, the Philosopher's Stone is an alchemical substance that can turn base metals into more valuable gold or silver. It's also said to be/create an "elixir of life" that can make humans younger or even immortal.
  • There are many instances of the number 666, commonly known as the "Number of the Beast". One such example is River Styx, in which the enemy base's HP is composed of two 666s.

Greek

  • Zeus is the god of the sky, ruler of all gods and brother to Poseidon and Hades.
  • Aphrodite is the goddess of "beauty, pride, love and... other stuff", whose weakness was thoughtlessness.
  • Poseidon is the god of the sea, storms, earthquakes and horses and brother to Zeus and Hades.
  • Chronos is the personification of time.
  • Gaia is a goddess who is the personification of Earth itself and the grandmother of many Olympian gods (Zeus is an example).
  • Medusa Cat and Medu-san are obviously based on Medusa, one of three Gorgons. Medusa Cat's ability to freeze Relics refers to Medusa's ability to turn people to stone.
  • Hades is the god of the dead, king of the underworld and brother to Zeus and Poseidon.
  • The Cerberus Kids and Long Line at Cerberus is named after a three-headed dog that guards the gates to the underworld.
  • Each level of Parthenon is named after a famous figure in Greek mythology, such as Hades and Gaia. The sub-chapter itself shares the same name with an ancient Greek temple that was devoted to the Greek goddess Athena.
  • Triton's Cave is named after the son of Poseidon and Amphitrite.
  • Icarus' Instinct refers to the legend of Daedalus' son Icarus. In the legend, he ignored his father's warnings to not fly too close to the sun, melting his wax wings and sending him to a watery grave in the sea in the Icarian Sea.
  • Charybdis' Mouth is based on the myth of sea monsters Scylla and Charybdis, the latter being known for constantly making whirlpools and sometimes being depicted as simply a large whirlpool.
  • River Styx and River Acheron are named after two of the five rivers of the underworld. Styx specifically makes the boundary between the world of the living and the underworld. Zroco's and Zollow's descriptions also reference the River Styx, as both attempt to cross the river itself. Only Zollow can do so consistently, however, and is implied to come out as Brollow, actively crossing the line between life and death.
  • Charon's Overbooked and the Meow Medal Charon's Crossing refer to Charon, the ferryman of the underworld who transports souls across the rivers Styx and Acheron.

Japanese

Norse

  • Valkyrie Cat's weapon, known as "Meownir" according to her description, is based on the spear Gungnir held by the god Odin in Norse mythology and the hammer Mjölnir, held by Thor. A Valkyrie is also one of Odin's heavenly warriors.
    • Mentioned in her description, Valhalla is home to Odin and is a hall in Asgard.
  • Thor Cat is a reference to Thor, the god of sky and thunder. His hammer might be a reference to Mjölnir, the hammer of Thor.
  • Urs' mount, Fenrir, is a monstrous wolf and child of Loki and a giantess, Angrboða.
  • Battle God Odin, the VIP Almighty from the defunct PC version, was based on Odin, one of the most important and prominent gods in Norse mythology.
  • Angelic Sleipnir is a direct reference to Odin's eight-legged steed Sleipnir.

Real People and Animals

  • Beefcake Cat's description references the first half of the famous quote from professional boxer Muhammad Ali: "Float like a butterfly, sting like a bee. The hands can't hit what the eyes can't see." ("Paired with legs that float like a butterfly, can really sting like a bee!")
  • Dancer Cat references the deceased singer Michael Jackson, well known from popularizing the Moonwalk dance.
  • Bodhisattva Cat is a direct reference to Buddha, who is even mentioned in its True Form's description.
  • iCat is a reference to Steve Jobs, the co-founder of Apple.
  • Cat Eastwood is an obvious reference to actor Clint Eastwood.
  • Groucho Cat's appearance and name are direct references to Groucho Marx, one of the Marx Brothers, a popular family comedy act.
  • Psychocat's spoon is a clear reference to famous illusionist and self-proclaimed psychic Uri Geller (potentially by way of his Pokémon, Alakazam).
  • The Sengoku Wargods Vajiras units are named after heroes who fought during the Sengoku period of feudal Japan.
  • D'artanyan's name is based on the captain of the Musketeers of the Guard, d'Artagnan, also known as the Fourth Musketeer.
  • Volta's name references a famous scientist who studied electricity called Alessandro Volta, after whom the unit of electricity "Volt" is named after.
  • Ushikawakamaru is based on the Japanese legend Minamoto no Yoshitsune, and Colossal Benkei is based on Yoshitsune's actual bodyguard.
  • Jackie Peng is a reference to Jackie Chan, a Chinese movie star famous for his martial arts.
  • St. Pigge the 2nd's Japanese name and description both reference the current Queen of England, Elizabeth II. In fact, the Japanese name literally translates to "Elizabeth II"!
  • The "very famous movie director" in Director Kurosawah's description is a reference to the legendary Japanese film director Akira Kurosawa.
  • Sir Seal's and Sir Metal Seal's Japanese descriptions state that they came to Tokyo, referencing the famous seal Tama-chan.
  • R.Ost's Japanese name, Dachō Dōkō-kai ("Ostrich Club") is a reference to the Dachō Club, a comedy trio.
  • Rain D.'s Japanese name, Nakai-kun, is derived from the word tonakai, meaning "reindeer", but is also a reference to Masahiro Nakai, who had a television program named Nakai-kun Onsen and, like Rain D. in the Japanese Version, likes baseball and singing.
  • Dagshund's Japanese name (Daffundo) and description reference Ken Shimura's weird uncle character and one of his famous lines, "Daffunda!"
  • J.K Bun Bun seems to reference J.K. Rowling, the famous author of the Harry Potter series.
  • J.K Bun Bun's Japanese name, Buntaro Akai (赤井ブン太郎), is a reference to Buntaro Kuroi (黒井文太郎), a military journalist.
  • Maawth's Japanese name (Ledi Ga; "Ga" meaning "moth") and description may be a reference to the pop artist Lady Gaga.
  • Nimoy Bore is named after Leonard Nimoy, a deceased actor best known for playing the Star Trek character Spock.
  • Boraphim is most probably based on Tarō Kida. Not only are they both famous composers with gray hair, but Boraphim's Japanese description says he's chief adviser of a certain famous detective agency, the same title held by Tarō Kida on Knight Scoop.
    • Furthermore, the songs mentioned in his Japanese description are "Operation Nyamputer" and "Cat Dōraku", referring to how Tarō Kida composed music for the television series Operation Love and the restaurant Kani Dōraku.
  • Queen B's Japanese description mentions the entertainment industry, possibly referencing the singer Beyoncé, whose nickname is Queen B.
  • Winged Pigge's Japanese name, 天使ブッタ Tenshi Butta, may be a pun combining ブタ buta ("pig") and ブッダ budda ("Buddha"); 天使 tenshi simply means "angel".
  • Selena's Japanese name, Namie-chan, may be a reference to Namie Amuro, also known as Amuro-chan.
    • Since both are famous singers, songwriters, actresses and producers, this could mean that Selena's English name is, by extension, a reference to Selena Gomez.
  • Comedian M. Ost's Japanese name, Ōrudorī, is a portmanteau of ōrudo, the Japanese pronunciation of old; tori, meaning "bird"; and ōdorī, the Japanese pronunciation of comedy duo Audrey.
  • St. Dober's description refers to the story of Hachiko, a Japanese Shiba Inu who waited at the train station everyday to wait for his owner to come home. However, the owner died of a hemorrhage at work. Hachiko continued to wait at the station for as long as he lived, until he died. A bronze statue was made in his honour.
  • Johnnyleon's name and description reference John Lennon, a famous singer and songwriter and co-founder of the Beatles.
  • Aku Gory's Japanese description saying he was fired for a dark business problem but came back as a video streamer seems to reference Hiroyuki Miyasako, who, along with several other comedians, temporarily lost his job soon after he was found to have been attending yakuza parties, but later resurfaced as a regular YouTuber. This scandal has been dubbed (roughly translated) "the comedians' dark business problem".
  • While Fallen Bear's Japanese name, Akkuma Kakka (アックマ閣下, "His Excellency Akkuma"), is primarily a combination of akuma, meaning "devil" and kuma, meaning "bear", it may also be a reference to the Japanese musician, songwriter, entertainer, journalist, sumo commentator, actor and voice actor Demon Kakka. This is supported by how his Japanese description mentions sumo wrestling and how it's specifically his head that is coated in darkness, which is similar to how Demon Kakka always wears face paint. And just like Teacher Bear, Demon Kakka's real name is not known by the general public.
  • Each Variety Bear resembles a different member of a Japanese comedy duo:
  • Argentina has Diego Maradona as its enemy base.

Television

  • Vacation Queen's description may reference the crime drama series Breaking Bad. ("Likes to break bad while on vacation!")
  • Death Angel Z-Onel's attack animation is reminescent of the Demogorgon from Stranger Things.
  • The Audience Bears and Variety Bears' respective Japanese names, Bear Talk and Rainbow Bear Talk, may reference the comedy-focused talk show Ametalk, which has a rainbow as its logo. Moreover, the Japanese names of the Bears be Bare and Bears Be Back stages tend to be themed around comedy.
  • Family Feuding is a reference to the game show Family Feud.
  • X-Files is a reference to the sci-fi television series The X-Files.
  • The Meow Medal Buns of Steel is a reference to a 90s fitness show of the same name.

Ultraman

  • Jamiera Cat may be a reference to Jamila. This is further supported by the Japanese names of the two characters, where two syllables from the monster's name are swapped to form the Cat Unit's name:
    • ジャミラ Jamira → ネコジャラミ Neko Jarami.
  • Ultralan Pasalan's name, appearance and description all reference Ultraman himself.
  • Scissoroo may be a reference to Alien Baltan, a lobster-ish alien with similar metal pincers. In fact, Scissoroo uses blasters hidden inside her pincers to attack, just like how Alien Baltans have various hidden weapons inside their pincers.
  • The crest/fin/mohawk on Shibalien Elite's head is likely a reference to that Ultraseven, which looks almost the same when viewed from the side.
  • Star Peng is most probably a reference to the kaiju Bemstar, as both are avian extraterrestrials with the word "star" in their name, a horn-like protrusion on their head and a hexagon-in-a-hexagon on their belly.
  • The pigtail-like protrusions on Le'Solar's head resemble Mother of Ultra's Silver Cross Decorations. The Japanese names support this in a way, with Le'Solar being Hahapaon (ハハパオン) and Mother of Ultra being Urutora no Haha (ウルトラの母).
  • Youcan's design is a reference to the Alien Guts.
  • Because of how many Ultraman references are already in this game, UltraBaaBaa's name could be an allusion to the Ultra-beings or just to the series in general.
  • N77 Nebula makes multiple references: the enemy base bears a resemblance to the eponymous main character of the series; Ultraman is from Nebula M78, similar to the name of the stage; and the Treasure, 3 Minutes, is the same amount of time Ultraman can appear for in the show.

Theatre

  • Hannya's namesake is a Hannya, a mask used in Noh theater to represent a jealous female demon.
  • Black Okame's namesake is an Okame, a mask used in Kyōgen theater to represent a positive and good luck-bringer being.
  • Caliban's Keeper is named after Caliban, a character from the William Shakespeare play The Tempest.
  • As her name suggests, Juliet Cat is based on Juliet from one of Shakespeare's most popular plays, Romeo and Juliet.

Theme Parks

Video Games

  • Bahamut Cat and his dragon-like appearance are a reference to the Final Fantasy series' Bahamut as well as the King of the Metallic Dragons in Dungeons and Dragons. Bahamut is closely associated with powerful magic called Flare, which is usually one of the most potent offensive magics available in DnD; Bahamut Cat's attack may be a sort of "Dark Flare".
  • All of Apple Cat's forms resemble an enemy from Harmful Park (PS1) that appears to be Frankenstein's monster, but opens up its head to reveal a cat dancing in a manner identical to Apple Cat.
  • Necro-Dancer Cat is a direct reference to the Necrodancer from the video game Crypt of the Necrodancer. His description also refers to how the Necrodancer's magic causes the dead [and who he afflicts] to come to life and dance.
  • Berserker Cat and Paladin Cat may be a reference to Cecil Harvey of Final Fantasy 4. Berserker Cat is also called the "Dark Metal Knight", which is Cecil's class (Dark Knight) for the beginning portion of the game. However, a fairly short way into the game Cecil's devotion to his loved one and his desire to protect others allows him to go from being a Dark Knight to being a Paladin, which matches what occurs in Paladin Cat's description.
    • "Dark Metal Knight" could also be referencing Dark Meta Knight, a recurring boss in the Kirby series.
    • Berserker Cat may be a reference to Artorias from Dark Souls because he holds his sword in his left hand and has a similar armor.
    • Paladin Cat's weapon like a combination of several weapons used by Kingdom Hearts Organization XIII: it has Axel's Chakrams, Vexen's Shield, Lexaeus's Axe, Larxene's Knives, and Xaldin's Lances. Paladin Cat himself also has a similarity to the Twilight Thorn Nobody.
  • Elemental Duelist Cat bears a striking resemblance to a Xenoblade character who also has a similar monocle-like attachment.
    • He could also be based off Lloyd Irving from the "certain game" Tales of Symphonia. Both have a similar hairstyle, and Elemental Duelist Cat has Lloyd's signature dual swords, one blue (in his right hand) and one red (in his left).
  • Kamukura has a distinct reference to the ancient sea creature named the Leviathan, or more specifically the Final Fantasy interpretation of it. Leviathan in the Final Fantasy series is generally the strongest Water elemental attack available in game, and usually one of the strongest Summons. Speaking of which, Kamukura's appearance also closely resembles a colorless version of the Water Dragon from Final Fantasy VI. Its attack, summoning a geyser of water, may also refer to the dragon's habitat, as many Lung dragons are seen having relation to rivers. In fact, there are legends which imply that the Yellow River was once a dragon.
  • Bombercat is a reference to Bomberman.
  • Commando Cat's attack animation is similar to the Flash Kick, one of Guile's special attacks in the fighting game series Street Fighter.
  • E. Kubilan Pasalan, according to his name, description, and design (most notably the hairstyle and clothing), is based off of E. Honda from Street Fighter. Fittingly, E. Kubilan Pasalan attacks with a headbutt, just like E. Honda can.
  • Akira may be inspired by X and Zero from the Rockman/Megaman franchise. The arm cannon is their common trait and Shadow Akira's long hair is quite similar to Zero's.
  • Corrupted Psychocat's description is somewhat like the mindset of the Final Fantasy villain Xande and Neo Exdeath. Their goals are both the result of a corruption and plan to eventually bring the whole of the universe into nothingness.
  • The White Rabbit's forms take a stance like Bayonetta and shoot like her.
  • Welterweight Cat may be based off of Little Mac from the Punch-Out!! series.
  • Hayabusa's name may be a reference to the main character of the Ninja Gaiden series, Ryu Hayabusa.
  • CAT-6 Siege Engine's name may be a reference to the game Tom Clancy's Rainbow Six Siege.
  • B.C.S. Lionheart looks similar to Big Shiee of Metal Slug.
  • Appearance-wise, NEK-0 Sky Fortress is similar to The Keesi III from the Metal Slug series as it has a pair of guns under the wings and it drops bombs.
  • Easter Cat's energy-ring-Moai attack is reminiscent of the Moai in the Gradius series, as well as Double's Megalith Array blockbuster attack from the game Skullgirls.
  • Masked Yulala's design may be a reference to the character Mudman from the World Heroes series.
  • Chronos the Infinite's Japanese name, Chronos Trigger is a direct reference to the role-playing game Chrono Trigger.
  • Lumina bears a resemblance to the Lake Guardians from Pokémon: (Pokémon) Uxie, (Pokémon) Azelf and (Pokémon) Mesprit mainly due to the similar tails (and the fact that they are all fairy-like creatures).
    • Ultimate Lasvoss appears to be a reference to Final Fantasy V's final boss, Neo Exdeath. Additionally, while Lasvoss's name is primarily a corruption of "last boss", it is also similar to Lavos, the primary antagonist of Chrono Trigger.
    • Furthermore, the "third eye" and the shape around it further support its connection to Lavos.
  • Mr. Mole's Rising Mole Fist is a reference to the Shoryuken, a move from the Street Fighter franchise. Ken (known as Sho-Ryu-Ken) means Rising Dragon Fist.
  • Super Cosmic Cyclone's black spheres with stars vaguely resemble Nightmare of the Kirby series.
  • Doremi may be based on Doremy Sweet, a character from the bullet hell game Touhou Project who has a very similar name and is also a baku.
  • The Cerberus Kids' individual names provided in their Japanese description—Tiablo, Baal and Mephisto—are shared with the three Prime Evils from the Diablo franchise—with the exception of Tiablo, which is off by one letter.
  • The crop circles next to the monkey on Into the Future's map are shaped like the aliens from Space Invaders.
  • The white hood worn by the eagle on Altair's enemy base may be a reference to Altaïr Ibn-La'Ahad from the Assassin's Creed series.
  • Dark Souls is a reference to an action role-playing game of the same name developed by FromSoftware and published by Namco Bandai Games, notorious for its insane difficulty.
  • Flappy Cat is named after a game called Flappy Bird. The game was a huge hit in spite of having little to no gameplay. Ultimately it caused a lot of stress to the creator and was removed for reasons that will not be explained here.
  • Resident Feline is a reference to the well-known zombie horror game series Resident Evil.
  • N-1 Grand Prix is a possible reference to the N1 Grand Prix in the MegaMan Battle Network series. In both the games and anime, this is a battle tournament between powerful Navis and Operators.
  • The portals created when a unit is being warped resemble the portals from the game Portal as the initial portal is orange while the secondary portal is blue.
  • One of the Splash Texts contains Pokémon' slogan, "Gotta catch 'em all!". ("If you get the best quality Cat Treasures from all the stages, the Cats will be more powerful then ever! GOTTA CATCH 'EM ALL!")
  • The Cat Shrine quote "You are filled with determination" is a possible reference to the indie game Undertale, in which the same phrase appears whenever the player uses a save point.
  • The April Fools' Day 2018 article was about "School Cat Club Idol Heart Live Plus!", a parody of the mobile rhythm game series Love Live! School Idol Festival.

Dragon Quest

  • Thaumaturge Cat's design is a combination of the characters Hargon (same robe and pose) and the Dragonlord (same horns).
  • The "Chosen One" in Cat Clan Heroes' Normal Form resembles the protagonist from Dragon Quest.
  • Mystican Pasalan may be a reference to the Hero of Dragon Quest V due to the similar turbans and capes.
  • Lasvoss' Normal Form closely resembles the final form of Mortamor.
  • Aku Gory's Japanese name, Hell Gorilla (ヘルゴリラー Herugorirā), is likely a reference to Barbatos, who is known as Hellbattler (ヘルバトラー Herubatorā) in Japan. This is because "gorilla" spelled in katakana would normally just be ゴリラ, without the ー (chōonpu); by adding the ー, it actually translates to Hell Goriller. And, of course, there's the fact that both are bulky blue gargoyle-like demons.
  • Dark Priest Mamon is more than likely another reference to Hargon, as besides having similar designs, both are evil priests who aim to summon skull-wearing demonic gods of destruction (Malroth in Hargon's case, Lord of Ruin Jagando in Dark Priest Mamon's).
  • Steel Snake may be a reference to Metal Slime, as both look like semiliquid metal, take 1 damage from most hits while having low HP, and share a pointy tip in the upper part of their head.
    • By extension, Mercury Sloth, whose Japanese name is Hagurekemoruru, would be a reference to the Liquid Metal Slime, which is known as Haguremetaru (はぐれメタル, "Stray Metal") in Japan.
  • Legend Quest's logo bears a striking resemblance to Dragon Quest's.

Mario

  • While Flying Ninja Cat's method of flight is very similar in appearance to T.A.C Kirby's, it may also be a reference to Cape Mario.
  • Catasaurus resembles Yoshi, its description says "Discovered a cute dinosaur in a magical land of fungi", referring to the Mushroom Kingdom; and the dinosaur while jumping moves his feet for extra time in the air when attacking, just like Yoshi. It is also interesting to note that when knocked back, the dinosaur's tongue can be seen, which further supports its resemblance with Yoshi.
  • Groucho Cat looks like Fishin' Boo, an enemy in Super Mario World.
  • Catorpedo looks rather like a Bullet Bill
  • Cat Kart R is a reference to the Mario Kart series:
    • Cat Kart R appears to be based on Mario, with the R standing for "Red".
    • Cat Kart G appears to be based on Luigi (being slightly taller and a different color), with the G standing for "Green".
    • Cat Kart P appears to be based on Princess Peach, with hair, crown, and Mario Kart-specific ponytail, and the P standing for "Pink".
  • Green Shell Cat looks identical to the shell of a Green Koopa Troopa, which is known to travel in straight lines.
    • However, in Mario Kart games, when Mario throws the shell, a red shell will home in, but a green shell will travel in a straight line.
  • When unmasked, Elder Flame Doron looks fairly similar to a Boo.
  • Both the T.U.R.T.L.E. and Teacher Bun Bun are similar to Mario's nemesis Bowser.
    • By extension, Li'l Bun Bun may be a reference to Bowser Jr.
    • Bowser and the T.U.R.T.L.E. have similar attacks as well, both shooting balls of fire from their mouths.
  • Zollow's collapsing and reassembling animations are reminiscent of the Dry Bones enemies.

Other PONOS Games

Miscellaneous

  • Quizmaster Cat's overall attire seems to resemble Uncle Sam, an icon for the United States government. The colour theme supports this in a way.
  • Space Marine Cat's name and appearance could very well be a reference to Space Marines, a character in Warhammer 40,000.
  • The "cheap Swedish furniture" in Acrobat Cats' English description is most likely referencing the Swedish furniture retail company IKEA.
  • The Slapstick Cats are based on manzai-style comedy duos, which consist of a silly man (forgetful and prone to misinterpretation) and a straight man (impatient and quick to correct errors). Their True Form name in the Japanese version is a portmanteau of nyan (Japanese onomatopoeia for the sound cats make) and nandeyanen, which is a Kansai dialect phrase which can be translated as "What are you talking about" or "Are you kidding me," used in response to something the speaker finds absurd. This phrase (or a variation thereof) is frequently invoked by the straight man to berate the silly man and is often accentuated by a jab or smack to the head, sometimes with a paper fan prop.
  • The divine mirror "Yata no Kagami" refers to one piece of the Imperial Regalia of Japan, a set of three national treasures linked to state Shintō and the royal family and steeped in legend. These same three treasures (a mirror, a sword, and a jewel) pop up repeatedly in Japanese games across all genres. The real-life mirror of the set is believed to be housed in the Ise Grand Shrine, Japan's primary shrine dedicated to the sun goddess Amaterasu. And in case you were wondering, no, visitors cannot see it.
  • Mentioned in Dogumaru's description, cBay is a reference to the online marketplace eBay.
  • Croco's Japanese name, Wanikku (ワニック), references the arcade game Gator Panic (ワニワニパニック Waniwani Panikku), merging wani ("crocodile") and panikku ("panic") into one word.
  • Squire Rel's description references the English conversation schools commonly found outside train stations across Japan. None of them have a squirrel as a mascot however, although arguably the most infamous chain did have a rabbit-like thing.
  • Sunfish Jones's description references the Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit stealth bomber.
  • Package Doge is a reference to the company Amazon, not only in terms of how they deliver their parcels usually with excessively large boxes, but the enemy actually has the word "wamazon" on the side of it. The "w" presumably comes from wan, the Japanese onomatopoeia for a dog's bark.
  • The top of the Surge Base is modeled after the Monument to the Revolution of the people of Moslavina in Croatia.
  • The "FB" in Blocked on FB! refers to the popular social media site Facebook, which was mentioned by name in Those Guys's original English description.
  • No Right Swipes refers to the dating app Tinder, in which swiping right is a way to show your approval of someone after seeing their profile.
  • One of the featured news headlines on the April Fools' Day 2017 article, "・10,001 shocking facts about Moneko! (Number 7,392 will ASTOUND you!)" parodied the clickbait tactics employed by many real news sites.
  • The featured news headlines on the April Fools' Day 2018 article included mentions of Anyazon, Instantgram and DogeTube, parodying Amazon, Instagram and YouTube, respectively.

References in Spin-Offs and Related Games

  • The Burgle Cats:
    • Sean may have been based on PONOS translator Sean Koble, as both are bilingual.
    • Corban's design is based on the Pokémon Meowth, and Picarin is an obvious reference to Pikachu.
    • Gordon bears more than a passing resemblance to Garfield.
    • The show "Real Housecats" in Daisy's description is a reference to The Real Housewives.
    • Wilson somewhat resembles Yo-kai Watch mascot Jibanyan.
    • Trolley's design is based on Totoro from My Neigbor Totoro.
    • Nora's design is based on Luna from Sailor Moon.
    • Alice is probably a reference to the Cheshire Cat from Alice in Wonderland.
    • Lucky's design is based on Japanese Daruma dolls.
    • Artie's blue fur with purple spots and "monstrous complexion" reference Sully from Monsters, Inc.
    • The Master's Wig and the Traveller's Gear resemble Goku's haircut and outfit from Dragon Ball.
    • The Cool Red Cap and the Trendy Overalls, the former of which is "not suitable for plumbers", are an obvious reference to the titular character of the Mario franchise.
    • The Glamorous Wig and the Celebrity Gown reference Marilyn Monroe. The wig is "modeled after a famous actress's hair" while the gown is based on the dress she wears in The Seven Year Itch.
  • Battle Cats Quest:
    • Heads Off, another of PONOS' other games, makes a cameo appearance as a playable skin.
    • The Bounty Hunter skin is a reference to the Varia Suit from the Metroid series.
    • The Pink Cat skin may be a reference to Kirby.
    • One of the enemy cats resembles Sonic the Hedgehog, and its method of attack resembles the Spindash.
  • Kyoto Project:
    • The enemy roster was comprised of different yōkai from Japanese mythology, like oni and jorōgumo.
  • Yuru-i GeGeGe no Kitarou: Youkai Dotabata Daisensou:
    • Mizugami's Evolved Form, Mizugami Hachimentai (lit. "Mizugami Octahedron") looks like a smaller, lighter, liquid version of the Neon Genesis Evangelion Angel Ramiel.
    • Kemedama's Gorgeous variant is called Goldeneye, which may be a reference to the James Bond movie of the same name.
    • Kemedama's Death variant, Arkemedes, is named after Greek mathematician and inventor Archimedes. The joke is that "des" and "death" are homophones in Japanese, meaning it could also be translated as Arkemedeath.
    • Kagami-Jijii's Gorgeous variant, Yata no Kagami-Jijii, is, of course, named after the famous mirror Yata no Kagami.
    • The Serious enemies in general resemble the Funghi Meanie from the Mushroom Garden series, being purple with the same exact sunglasses.
    • Daruma's Serious variant, Darmani, is a reference to the Italian fashion designer Armani. His description even states that he is a "super famous eyewear designer".
    • Mummy's Serious variant is called Frank Miira (フランクミイラ Furanku Miira; miira = "mummy"), which has a similar katakana spelling to that of Franck Muller (フランク・ミュラー Furanku Myurā), a brand of watches.
    • Mummy's Death variant, Dies Miirae, is named after the Latin hymn "Dies irae". Again, "dies" sounds almost like "death" in Japanese, so it could also be translated as Dieath Miirae.

Vice Versa

Unknown/Missing

  • Onmyoji Cat's description ("Exorcist who time traveled from the past. Always trying to purge sportscars of evil.")
  • Kid Tappa's English name
  • Most of the Enemy Bases from the Japanese version of Empire of Cats
  • Many of the fictional Cats of the Cosmos planets' appearances on the map
  • Uranus's enemy base and Treasure (Purple Clock)
  • Moskandag's enemy base and Treasure (Hope)
  • Various references that are already on their respective units'/stages' articles but haven't been added to this page

Trivia

  • The Variety Bears have the most references of all characters, with six total.
  • Excluding Greek and Japanese mythologies, the most referenced work in the game is Dragon Ball Z.
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